Last-mile delivery with electric vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles, and e-scooters and e-bikes
Intense growth of e-commerce over the last years has been recognized to have a strong impact on logistics and transportation, and particularly on different modes of last-mile deliveries in urban areas. Simultaneously, many European regulations have imposed strict environmental limitations in terms of decreased air and noise pollution in urban areas. In such circumstances, logistics and transportation sector needs to offer more efficient and more environmental ways to deliver goods. In this paper, we consider electric vehicles (EV) and different concepts of EVs, like unmanned aerial vehicles, e-scooters, and e-bikes as appropriate solutions for last-mile deliveries from the environmental perspective and lifecycle costs.
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