Alternative fuel vehicle as the technology for reduction of negative transport influence on the environment
100 million of new vehicles were sold in the World in 2016, resulting in an increase in mobility and passenger-kilometre. Road transport participates with over 22% of the total CO2 emissions, as well as with dominant 40% share of NOx emission. Despite the numerous policies and strategies of sustainable mobility, the use of passenger cars, as an extremely dominant category of vehicles, is at a steady pace. This paper presents an overview of the current technology of the alternative fuel vehicles whose main goal is to reduce emissions of harmful pollutants released into the environment. The technology of hybrid, battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles is presented, comparing their carbon footprint with the one of conventional, internal combustion engine vehicles. The influence of both direct and indirect effects (so-called Well-to-Wheel analysis) of each mentioned drive system technology was considered. Literature review showed that hydrogen fuel cell tecnology has the greatest potential in reducing, if hydrogen is generated from natural gas, or renewable sources. Hybridization of gasoline vehicles also showed a good result in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, thanks to its self-charging batteries. General conclusion indicates that the application of new alternative fuel vehicle technology can significanly contribute to environmental protection only if renewable energy sources are used.
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